This page is dedicated to resources about the indigenous tribes of the North American southeast, particularly those in the South Carolina colony in and around present-day Charleston County. Almost from first contact with European explorers, the native tribes of the South Carolina coast began going extinct. The resources gathered here offer a look at the often forgotten original settlers, the role they played in the new colony's history, and their relations with European settlers. There are books, posters, maps, databases, articles, videos, and more for in depth research into Charleston's indigenous peoples.
Prior to European colonization, South Carolina's coast was home to numerous native tribes. From the Georgia state line through the southern half of Charleston County was the Muskogean Nation, made up of the tribes of the Ashepoo, Bohicket, Cofitachiqui, Combahee, Coosa, Cusabo, Cusso, Edisto, Escamacu, Etiwan, Kiawah, Kusso-Natchez, Edisto, Stono, Wando, Wimbee, and Yamassee. The northern half of Charleston to the North Carolina border, consisted of the Siouan tribes of Chicora, Pee Dee, Sampit, Santee, Sewee, Waccamaw, and Winyah.
According to South Carolina's Information Highway (SCIWAY), the Coastal Indians met Spanish explorer Lucas Vásquez Ayllón near Pawleys Island in 1520. Upon this first contact, 140 Indians were taken as slaves. Though small remnants of some tribal descendants remain, the vast majority of the tribes were either killed or exiled on the Trail of Tears. The only reminders of their existence are the names of rivers - like the Santee, Wando, and Waccamaw - and surrounding areas, such as Awendaw, Wampee, and Pee Dee, inherited from those who came first.
Fitts, Keri and Welch, Robin. (n.d.). The Native Americans of South Carolina. South Carolina Information Highway (SCIWAY). Retrieved February 25, 2020, from https://www.sciway.net/hist/indians/.
History.com Editors. (2009). King Philip’s War. History. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved February 27, 2020, from https://www.history.com/topics/native-american-history/king-philips-war
Lumbee Tribe of North Carolina. (n.d.). History and Culture. https://www.lumbeetribe.com/history--culture
Mather, Increase, (1676). A Brief History of the Warr with the Indians in New-England. . 9. https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/zeaamericanstudies/9
Milling, Chapman J. (1969). Red Carolinians. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.
Swanton, John R. (1984). The Indian Tribes of North America. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press
As Long as the Waters Flow:
Gregory, G. (1998). As Long As the Waters Flow: Native Americans in the South and the East. Library Journal, 18, 94.
Black Slaves, Indian Masters:
Myers, L. (2016). Black Slaves, Indian Masters: Slavery, Emancipation, and Citizenship in the Native American South. Journal of African American History, 101(4), 556–557.
Cohen, D. S. (2013). Lumbee Indians in the Jim Crow South: Race, Identity, and the Making of a Nation. Journal of American Folklore, 499, 95.
Yarbrough, F. A. (2011). Malinda Maynor Lowery. Lumbee Indians in the Jim Crow South: Race, Identity, and the Making of a Nation. The American Indian Quarterly, 2, 270.
Salmond, John. (1999). Charles Joyner, Shared Traditions: Southern History and Folk Culture. Australasian Journal of American Studies, 18(2), 89.
Wyatt-Brown, Bertram. (2001). Shared Traditions: Southern History and Folk Culture Charles Joyner. The Florida Historical Quarterly, 79(4), 608.
The History of the Native Americans:
Browne, Eric. (2006). The History of the American Indians James Adair and Kathryn E. H. Braund. The Journal of Southern History, 72(2), 452.
Hawkins, Richard. (2006). The History of the American Indians [by James Adair] Kathryn E. Holland Braund James Adair. Journal of American Studies, 40(1), 166.
The Land Called Chicora:
Murdoch, Richard K. (1957). The Land Called Chicora: The Carolinas under Spanish Rule with French Intrusions, 1520–1670. By Paul Quattlebaum. Journal of American History, Volume 44, Issue 1, Pages 114–116, https://doi.org/10.2307/1898673
Tibesar, A. (1957). Book Review: The Land Called Chicora. The Americas, 14(2), 214.
Verner W. Crane. (1957). The Land Called Chicora: The Carolinas under Spanish Rule with French Intrusions, 1520-1670 Paul Quattlebaum. The William and Mary Quarterly, 14(4), 627. https://doi.org/10.2307/1918530
The Yamasee War:
O’Donnell, J. H., III. (2009). Ramsey, William L.: The Yamasee War: A study of culture, economy, and conflict in the Colonial South. CHOICE: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries, 9, 1777.
Stern, Jessica R. (2009). The Yamasee War: A Study of Culture, Economy, and Conflict in the Colonial South (review). 39(4), 594–595.
Bergstein, Brian. (13 January 2012). Research Archive JSTOR Moves Toward Open Access. MIT Technology Review. Accessed February 27, 2020 from https://www.technologyreview.com/s/426609/research-archive-jstor-moves-toward-open-access/
Luey, Beth. (2005). JSTOR: A History (review). Technology and Culture. 46. 693-695.
Native American Indian Thought and Culture:
Danowitz, E., & Videon, C. (2010). Native American resources: Sites for online research. (8), 430-435. doi:https://doi.org/10.5860/crln.71.8.8424
Journals and Articles
A Cherokee Origin for the 'Catawba' Deerskin Map:
Calcaterra, A. (2018). Literary Indians: aesthetics and encounter in American literature to 1920. University of North Carolina Press.
(2014) Recent literature in cartography and geographic information science, Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 41:2, 179-192,
American Indian Magazine:
Michael P. Taylor. (2016). Not Primitive Enough to Be Considered Modern: Ethnographers, Editors, and the Indigenous Poets of the American Indian Magazine. Studies in American Indian Literatures, 28(1), 45-72. doi: 10.5250/studamerindilite.28.1.0045
American Indian Quarterly:
Metoyer-Duran, Cheryl. (1993). The American Indian Culture and Research Journal and The American Indian Quarterly: A Citation Analysis. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 17(4), 25-54.
Johnson, A. A. (2018). Enslaved Native Americans and the Making of South Carolina, 1659–1739. [Doctoral dissertation, Rice University]. Rice Digital Scholarship Archive.
Royal South Carolina Gazette:
Pribanic-Smith, Erika J. (2010). Sowing the Seeds of Disunion: South Carolina’s Partisan Newspapers and the Nullification Crisis, 1828-1833. (Order No. 3422976). [Doctoral Dissertation, University of Alabama]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
Something Cloudy in Their Looks:
Lee, W.E. (2004). Fortify, Fight, or Flee: Tuscarora and Cherokee Defensive Warfare and Military Culture Adaptation. The Journal of Military History 68(3), 713-770. doi:10.1353/jmh.2004.0124.
Charleston History Museum:
Holtcamp, Amy. (n.d.). Visit the Charleston Museum. Discover South Carolina. Retrieved February 20, 2020, from https://discoversouthcarolina.com/articles/visit-the-charleston-museum.
South Carolina Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism. (n.d.) Hobcaw Barony. Discover South Carolina. Retrieved February 20, 2020, from https://discoversouthcarolina.com/products/3837.
Santee Indian Mound:
Estes, Roberta. (29 August 2012). Santee Indian Mound in Summerton, S.C. Native Heritage Project. Retrieved February 20, 2020, from https://nativeheritageproject.com/2012/08/29/santee-indian-mound-in-summerton-sc/.
Sewee Indian Ring:
McAden, Marie. (n.d.). Walk the Sewee Shell Loop. Discover South Carolina. Retrieved February 20, 2020 from https://discoversouthcarolina.com/articles/walk-the-sewee-shell-loop.
Spanish Shell Mound:
South Carolina Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism. (n.d.). Spanish Mount. South Carolina Trails. Retrieved February 20, 2020, from https://www.sctrails.net/trails/trail/spanish-mount.
McAden, Marie. (n.d.). 5 Fun Things to Do in McClellanville. Discover South Carolina. Retrieved February 20, 2020 from https://discoversouthcarolina.com/articles/5-fun-things-to-do-in-mcclellanville.
Anderson, D. G. (2018). The Future of South Carolina Archaeology II: A View from 2018. South Carolina Antiquities, 50, 1-15.
Hancock, Emilie. (17 October 2018). Between the Stacks: Celebrate International Archeology Day at the Library. Moultrie News. Retrieved February 29, 2020 from https://www.moultrienews.com/opinion/between-the-stacks---celebrate-international-archaeology-day-at/article_8a47d7e2-cd61-11e8-9f46-9f7e0b18168f.html.
Ferguson, N. N., & Scott, D. (2016). Where the battle rages: war and conflict in Post-Medieval Archaeology. Post-Medieval Archaeology, 50(1), 134-147.
Our Treatment of the Cherokees:
Dale T. Knobel. (2012). “Native Soil”: Nativists, Colonizationists, and the Rhetoric of Nationality. 27(4), 314–337. https://doi.org/10.1353/cwh.1981.0017
Prins, H. (1988), A film by Helena Solberg‐Ladd.: Contrary Warriors—A Film of the Crow Tribe. American Anthropologist, 90: 774-778. doi:10.1525/aa.1988.90.3.02a01070
King Philip's War:
Zhadanov, S. I., Dulik, M. C., Markley, M., Jennings, G. W., Gaieski, J. B., Elias, G., Schurr, T. G., & Genographic Project Consortium. (n.d.). Genetic Heritage and Native Identity of the Seaconke Wampanoag Tribe of Massachusetts. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 142(4), 579–589. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.21281
Waccamaw Indian People:
Perdue, T. (2007). American Indian Survival in South Carolina. The South Carolina Historical Magazine, 108(3), 215-234. Retrieved March 2, 2020, from www.jstor.org/stable/27570899